I can’t really tell from the picture, but is it sticking up away from the limb?
If so, I would use a slow set epoxy, fill the hole with it, but don’t go crazy with extra, and place clear plastic wrap over it, then apply a small piece of wood over the plastic. Then use a clamp and clamp the wood to the limb. Use a small wood piece on the belly so the clamp doesn’t mar it.
Let set overnite, then remove everything and sand away the plastic until smooth. Then sand and back the limbs as you described. It won’t come loose again.
In my experience, superglue will not stand up to limb flex very well at all.